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How to install BTRFS on a Debian Linux 12/11

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Btrfs, which stands for "Butter FS" or "B-tree FS," is a modern Linux file system. It was developed to overcome the limitations of older file systems like ext4 or ext3. Btrfs is an excellent choice for efficient storage management on multiple Hard Disk Drivers. It supports Linux file systems with snapshots, subvolumes, and built-in RAID-like capabilities that provide robust data protection. It is designed to handle huge file systems and file sizes. Btrfs incorporates checksumming and COW (Copy-on-write), making it more resilient to data corruption. The COW feature means changes are written to new locations instead of overwriting existing data, enhancing data protection and enabling snapshots. After installation, let us see how to install Btrfs support for Debian Linux 11 or 12 using the CLI. Why am I using BTRFS on an existing Debian Linux system? In my case, the EC2 VM AMI is configured to use ext4 by default at AWS. However, I had to make changes since I needed to store files using EBS (Elastic Block Store) and Python code expected to see BTRFS. Hence, this quick tutorial. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install BTRFS on a Debian Linux 12/11 appeared first on nixCraft. 2024-02-14T06:10:00Z 2024-02-14T06:10:00Z Vivek Gite

How to install GPG (gnupg2) on a Debian Linux to fix gpg command not found error

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
GnuPG2 (or GPG2) is an open-source and free tool that implements the OpenPGP standard. Its primary purpose is to encrypt your sensitive information to protect it from unauthorized access. It also allows you to create digital signatures, guaranteeing that the data hasn't been tampered with while in transit. Many newly created Debian 11/12 cloud VMs and images may not have the gpg/gpg2 command installed. Thus, you will get an error that reads "-bash: gpg: command not found." Here is how to fix this error and install gnupg2 on a Debian Linux 11 or 12. Further, you will learn how to use the gpg command. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install GPG (gnupg2) on a Debian Linux to fix gpg command not found error appeared first on nixCraft. 2024-02-13T09:38:54Z 2024-02-13T09:38:54Z Vivek Gite

How to enable contrib repo on Debian Linux 10/11/12

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Sometimes, when you try to install specific Debian Linux packages, you might encounter an error message that reads: Unable to locate package pkg-name-here In many cases, the required package might already be present in the remote download repos. It would be best to have an additional repository, such as contrib, which adds extra packages to the core Debian Linux system. To enable and use the contrib repository in Debian Linux version 10/11/12 or newer versions, follow the instructions below. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to enable contrib repo on Debian Linux 10/11/12 appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-12-24T09:18:39Z 2023-12-24T09:18:39Z Vivek Gite

SSH WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! Error and Solution

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
{Updated} Are you getting, ' WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!' when try to use the ssh command under Linux, macOS or BSD? Let us see how I fixed this problem and log in using the ssh command.The post SSH WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! Error and Solution appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-11-17T10:31:00Z 2023-11-17T10:31:00Z Vivek Gite

How to open DHCP port using UFW in Linux

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
The Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) needs to be configured to allow traffic on UDP ports 67 and 68, regardless of whether the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server is local or remote. Additionally, it may be necessary to open both TCP and UDP port 53, which are used for Domain Name Service (DNS). In small business and home environments, typically, both DNS and DHCP services come from a single device. Hence, it would be best if you opened both DHCP and DNS ports using the ufw command. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to open DHCP port using UFW in Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-10-25T10:52:11Z 2023-10-25T10:52:11Z Vivek Gite

How to merge all PDF files into one PDF in Linux

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
I recently had to submit multiple PDF files for government work, but the web form only allowed for the uploading of a single file. This meant that I had to merge the PDF files into one on Linux. To do this, I used a command-line tool called pdfunite, which is a Portable Document Format (PDF) page merger. Let us see how to install and use the pdfunite in Linux. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to merge all PDF files into one PDF in Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-10-24T20:31:44Z 2023-10-24T20:31:44Z Vivek Gite

How to list package files with dnf in Linux (RHEL, CentOS, Rocky, Fedora, and Alma Linux)

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
If you’re using RHEL, CentOS, Rocky, Fedora, or Alma Linux, you may encounter situations where you must list files in a package before installing it. Similarly, there might be instances where you need to locate a specific configuration file after installing the package. In this guide, I’ll provide a quick tip for developers and sysadmins […] Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to list package files with dnf in Linux (RHEL, CentOS, Rocky, Fedora, and Alma Linux) appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-10-23T11:03:32Z 2023-10-23T11:03:32Z Vivek Gite

How to install Perl in Fedora Linux

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
I am migrating an old Perl project from an unsupported OS to Fedora Linux 38. However, I discovered that Perl is not installed by default, while Python 3 is. This seems ridiculous. Anyway, here is how to install Perl in Fedora Linux including latest version of mod_perl with Apache (HTTPD) and get on with your life. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install Perl in Fedora Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-10-22T16:25:26Z 2023-10-22T16:25:26Z Vivek Gite

How to fix “Error: Can’t open display: (null)” with ssh and xclip command in headless mode

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
When you try to use the xclip command over the ssh-based session to copy and paste data, you will get the following message on screen: Error: Can't open display: (null) Here is how to fix this error by editing the ssh client and OpenSSH (SSHD server) configuration file. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to fix “Error: Can’t open display: (null)” with ssh and xclip command in headless mode appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-10-08T20:01:52Z 2023-10-08T20:01:52Z Vivek Gite

How to block AI Crawler Bots using robots.txt file

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Are you a content creator or a blog author who generates unique, high-quality content for a living? Have you noticed that generative AI platforms like OpenAI or CCBot use your content to train their algorithms without your consent? Don't worry! You can block these AI crawlers from accessing your website or blog by using the robots.txt file. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to block AI Crawler Bots using robots.txt file appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-09-29T20:40:17Z 2023-09-29T20:40:17Z Vivek Gite

Find files that do not have any owners or do not belong to any user under Linux/UNIX

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
{Updated} Here is a Linux, Unix, *BSD and macOS command to search the entire system for files with no group or user.The post Find files that do not have any owners or do not belong to any user under Linux/UNIX appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-09-28T22:07:00Z 2023-09-28T22:07:00Z Vivek Gite

How to install wget on Fedora Linux using the dnf command

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Wget is a command-line tool to download files from the Internet or local servers. It is not a graphical user interface (GUI) program, and it must be used by typing commands into a terminal application. You can download files from the web. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and other protocols. It can mirror entire websites or directories. Wget can resume downloads interrupted due to a network error or a power outage. Wget can start the download again from where it left off. Thus saving you bandwidth and download time. Let us see how to install wget under Fedora Linux. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install wget on Fedora Linux using the dnf command appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-09-14T20:19:42Z 2023-09-14T20:19:42Z Vivek Gite

How to install vim in Alpine Linux

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Learn how to install Vim, the most popular text editor for server-based environments, on Alpine Linux using the command "apk add vim" command and Docker or LXD (Linux container) image. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to install vim in Alpine Linux appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-28T01:36:15Z 2023-08-28T01:36:15Z Vivek Gite

How do I list all USB devices in Linux?

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
{Updated} Need to find all USB devices connected to your Linux laptop or computer? Simply use the lsusb command (LIST USB) and other CLI and GUI tools in Linux.The post How do I list all USB devices in Linux? appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-18T18:31:00Z 2023-08-18T18:31:00Z Vivek Gite

How to reboot Alpine Linux using Ansible when kernel is updated

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
You can use the reboot or shutdown -r now to reboot the Linux system. However, this doesn't scale well if you have many Alpine Linux servers (or clusters based upon Alpine Linux) and need to reboot the server only if a new Linux kernel is installed. Let us see how to use the Ansible IT automation tool to reboot the Alpine Linux VM or server only when a new Linux kernel is installed. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to reboot Alpine Linux using Ansible when kernel is updated appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-16T04:34:25Z 2023-08-16T04:34:25Z Vivek Gite

How To Update macOS Using Command Line Software Update Tool

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
{Updated} Learn how to update macOS using the command line and many Mac machines using ssh.The post How To Update macOS Using Command Line Software Update Tool appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-10T18:33:00Z 2023-08-10T18:33:00Z Vivek Gite

How to decode BASE64 string in Linux and Unix

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
A long time ago, I wrote a script or config file that included BASE64 encoded string like "Le_PreHook='__ACME_BASE64__START_L3Jvb3QvYmluL2xlL2N5YmVyY2l0aS5iaXovcHJlX2JlZm9yZV9vYnRhaW5pbmdfYW55X2NlcnRpZmljYXRlcy5zaA==__ACME_BASE64__END_". So I wanted to know what this string was to update my config script. Here is how to decode BASE64 in Linux or Unix-like systems. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to decode BASE64 string in Linux and Unix appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-08T00:10:32Z 2023-08-08T00:10:32Z Vivek Gite

How to get and extract filename extension in Bash

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
I have a valuable tip for you on extracting the filename and extension in Bash when using Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, or Unix-like systems. It's quick and easy to follow. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post How to get and extract filename extension in Bash appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-05T06:54:51Z 2023-08-05T06:54:51Z Vivek Gite

Bash Append Text To a Variable (Concatenate Strings)

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
{Updated} How do I append additional text a variable? For e.g., I've a vech set as follows: vech='London', I would like to add (append) 'Bus' word to '$vevh' under UNIX or Linux shell scripting using bash?The post Bash Append Text To a Variable (Concatenate Strings) appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-03T07:36:00Z 2023-08-03T07:36:00Z Vivek Gite

Debian/Ubuntu Linux show package changelog command

nixCraft - 1 hour 58 min ago
Are you interested in checking the changelog of a package on Debian or Ubuntu and Linux Mint? You may need to search to see if the particular CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) is fixed. Suppose you have installed or upgraded a package in Debian or Ubuntu Linux. In that case, you can easily find out what changes have been made to the package, including new features or bug fixes. Here's how you can view the changelog of a Debian package in Debian or Ubuntu Linux. Love this? sudo share_on: Twitter - Facebook - LinkedIn - Whatsapp - Reddit The post Debian/Ubuntu Linux show package changelog command appeared first on nixCraft. 2023-08-02T04:37:32Z 2023-08-02T04:37:32Z Vivek Gite
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